Since MDGs are coming to an end in 2015, global leaders, development agencies, CSOs and think-tanks are already talking about post-MDG framework and targets. One proposal is to adopt the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In the last Rio+20 Summit, Nepal proposed focusing on food security and sustainable agriculture; water and sanitation; energy; sustainable cities; natural disaster; green job and social inclusion; and mountain ecosystem. As this discussion moves ahead and the global team of experts come up with some kind of quantifiable development targets for the post-MDG era, it is time to take a look at the achievements made thus far in achieving the MDGs.
Here, I am presenting a table showing the latest achievement and the target in 2015. The information is sourced from MDG Progress Report for Nepal 2010, Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, CBS and WB. Targets in parentheses are the revised ones as per Needs Assessment Report, Table 5.A.1. The table shows that Nepal is unlikely to achieve the target of reducing the proportion of employed people living on less than US$1.25 per day (PPP); increasing proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendant; and increasing proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility. All other targets are either achieve, likely to be achieved or potentially likely to be achieved.
|Progress against MDGs target|
|MDGs||Specific goals||Latest achievement||Target in 2015||Scenario 2015|
|MDG 1||Proportion of population living on less than US$ 1.25 per day (PPP) (%)||24.8||17||Likely|
|Proportion of population below national poverty line (%)||25.2||21||Likely|
|Proportion of employed people living on less than US$ 1.25 per day (PPP) (%)||22||17||Unlikely|
|Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (%)||36.1||25||Potentially likely|
|Proportion of underweight children aged 6–59 months (%)||28.8||29||Likely|
|Proportion of stunted children aged 6–59 months (%)||41||30|
|MDG 2||Net enrolment rate in primary education (%)||91.9||100||Potentially likely|
|Survival rate to Grade 5 (%)||80.6||100|
|Literacy rate for 15–24 years old (%)||88.6||100|
|MDG 3||Ratio of girls to boys at primary level||0.9||1||Likely|
|Ratio of girls to boys at secondary level||1||1||Achieved|
|Ratio of women to men at tertiary level||0.8||1||Potentially likely|
|Ratio of literate women to men aged 15–24 years||0.83||1||Potentially likely|
|MDG 4||Proportion of one-year-old children immunized against measles (%)||88||>90|
|Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)||54||54 (38)|
|Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)||46||34 (32)||Likely|
|MDG 5||Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)||229||213 (134)||Likely|
|Proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendant (%)||36||60||Unlikely|
|MDG 6||HIV prevalence among population aged 15–49 years (%)||0.49||0.35||Likely|
|Clinical malaria incidence (per 1,000 population)||5.7||3.8|
|Prevalence rate associated with TB (per 100,000 population)||244||210||Likely|
|Death rate associated with TB (per 100,000 population)||22||20||Likely|
|MDG 7||Area under forest coverage (%)||39.6||40||Potentially likely|
|Proportion of population using improved drinking water source (%)||88.6||73||Achieved|
|Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility (%)||39.5||53||Unlikely|
Meanwhile, to achieve the MDG targets, it is estimated that Nepal will need Rs 451 billion between 2011 and 2015. The figure below shows the cumulative resource need, funding available and resource gap to meet the MDGs between 2011 and 2015. The resource gap in achieving MDG Goal 2 (education) is about 60% of the actual expenditure (Rs 295 billion) in FY2011.
Of course, we need to be also aware of the fact that having the financial resources alone will not be sufficient to achieve the targets.